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Table 3 Lower limb function neuroprostheses: walking with greater lower limb impairment

From: Functional electrical stimulation therapy for restoration of motor function after spinal cord injury and stroke: a review

Function Name Target population Number of channels Orthosis use Surface/implanted/percutaneous FDA/CE approval Control interface
Walking Hybrid FES system developed by Andrews et al. [14] SCI   AFO, spinal brace Surface   Sensors on the handles of crutches, a spinal brace, or on the ankle–foot portion of the AFO
Goniometers and FRS’s used by a state machine to determine the gait phase and time the stimulation
Hybrid Assistive System [15] SCI 6 Unilateral actuated orthosis Surface   Switches, force transduces under the toe and heel, and potentiometers to measure knee and vertical shank displacement. All sensors used to define stimulation phase.
Reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) [28] SCI 4 HKAFO Surface   Push buttons placed on the handles of a walker
Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veteran Affairs (CWRU-VA) Neuroprosthesis for Standing [17] SCI 16 AFO Implanted   Push buttons
Parastep [29] SCI 6   Surface FDA Push buttons placed on the handles of a walker
COMPEX Motion FES system for walking [30] SCI 4   Surface   Push button
  1. SCI spinal cord injury, AFO ankle–foot orthosis, HKAFO hip–knee–ankle–foot orthosis, FDA Federal Drug Administration, FSR force-sensitive resistor