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Table 2 Lower limb function neuroprostheses: standing and drop foot assistance

From: Functional electrical stimulation therapy for restoration of motor function after spinal cord injury and stroke: a review

Function Name Target population Number of channels Orthosis use Surface/implanted/percutaneous FDA/CE approval Control interface
Standing Case Western Reserve University/Department of Veteran Affairs (CWRU-VA) Neuroprosthesis for Standing [17] SCI 16 AFO Implanted   
Walking with drop foot assistance Odstock [22] Stroke 1   Surface FDA Foot switch
STIMuSTEP [23] Stroke 2   Implanted CE Foot switch
ActiGait [24] Stroke 4   Implanted CE Foot switch
NESS L300 [25] Stroke 1   Surface FDA/CE Foot switch (force-sensitive resistor placed inside the shoe)
Walk-aided foot drop stimulator [26] Stroke 1   Surface FDA Tilt sensor or heel sensor
  1. SCI spinal cord injury; AFO ankle–foot orthosis, FDA Federal Drug Administration, CE Conformité Européene