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Table 1 Stimulation electrodes with different levels of invasiveness

From: Functional electrical stimulation therapy for restoration of motor function after spinal cord injury and stroke: a review

Type Typical current Advantages Disadvantages
Invasive
 Implanted 25 mA High stimulation specificity Require surgery
Suitable for long-term use Placement cannot be modified after implantation
 Percutaneous 25 mA High stimulation specificity Require surgery
Suitable for short-term use  
Non-invasive
 Transcutaneous (surface) 2 mA–120 mA Do not require surgery Unsuitable for stimulation of deep muscles
Easy to reposition Often require higher stimulation current